From Channels to Packets: Is the Mission Possible?

Manfred Schneps-Schneppe

Abstract


The confrontation between two telecommunications technologies – packet switching and circuit switching – has a long history and, it seems, will not stop in the foreseeable future. This problem is discussed using examples from two socially significant areas of the United States: emergency services and defense information systems, as well as from the field of microelectronics (network-on-a-chip). The history of unsuccessful attempts to switch to packet switching in the field of emergency services is outlined. Similar failures with the transition to packet switching in the field of defense information systems have already happened, namely: the ISDN technology was retained in government Defense Red Switch Network and hybrid ATM technology in intelligence information network JWICS and satellite control network AFSCN; the failure of the JRSS security stack program on the NIPRNet and SIPRNet email networks; The Joint Strike Fighter program was suspended due to cyber vulnerabilities in the software of the F-35 Lightning II aircraft.

As a result, we can assume that in terms of creating complex systems based on IP protocols and, moreover, cyber-invulnerable, humanity has reached the limits of what is possible. That the time has come to reflect on the feasibility of the very slogan "Everything over Internet Protocol" and look for solutions for the joint work of two technologies – packet switching and circuit switching.

 


Full Text:

PDF (Russian)

References


Total Telecom Equipment Market 2020. https://www.delloro.com/key-takeaways-total-telecom-equipment-market-2020/ Retrieved: May,2022.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Next Generation 9-1-1 (NG9-1-1) System Initiative Concept of Operations, Version 2.0. April 6, 2007.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Next Generation 9-1-1 (NG9-1-1) System Initiative System Description and High-Level Requirements Document, Version 1.1. July 31, 2007.

U.S. Department of Defense, Global Information Grid Architectural Vision, Version 1.0. June 1997.

Ch. Osborn. Defense Information Systems Network (DISN) An Essential Weapon for the Nation’s Defense. 16 May 2018/ file:///G:/Pentagon-book+/Osborn_%20DISN%20An%20Essential%20Weapon2018.pdf Retrieved: May,2022.

FCC. Technology Transitions, Order, Report & Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, Report Order, Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, Proposal for Ongoing Data Initiative, GN Docket No. 13-5, FCC 14-5 (rel. Jan. 31, 2014).

FCC. In the Matter of Technology Transitions GN Docket No. 13-5, March 19, 2014. http://apps.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=7521093879 Retrieved: May,2022.

Ph. Tracy, “Understanding FirstNet, the post-9/11 public safety initiative,” August 31, 2016. http://www.rcrwireless.com/20160831/fundamentals/firstnet-tag31- tag99/ Retrieved: May,2022.

47 billion network https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2016/09/the-47- billion-network-thats-already-obsolete/492764/ Retrieved: May,2022.

L.G. Kruger. The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress, January 26, 2017, Congressional Research Service 7-5700 http://www.crs.gov Retrieved: May,2022.

AT&T wins FirstNet network contract, March 30, 2017. https://forums.radioreference.com/community-announcements-news/350888-t-wins-firstnet-network-contract.html/ Retrieved: May,2022.

FirstNet Surpasses 2.8 Million Connections and Establishes Market Leadership with Law Enforcement. October 27, 2021. https://about.att.com/story/2021/momentous-public-safety-expansion.html/ Retrieved: May,2022.

V. Zhigadlo, “Telekommunikacionnye seti voennogo naznachenija SShA i stran NATO. Osobennosti i tendencii razvitija”//Jelektronika NTB. Vypusk #4/1999.

B.T. Bennet, “Information Dissemination Management/ Advanced intelligent Network services for department of Defense”// MILCOM, 1999.

W.W. Chao, “Emerging Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) For 21st Century Warfighters”// MILCOM, 1999.

Special Interoperability Test Certification of Avaya S8300D with Gateway 450 (G450). Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), Joint Interoperability Test Command (JITC), 17 Apr 2012

Department of Defense. Unified Capabilities Master Plan. October 2011

Local Session Controller: Cisco’s Solution for the U.S. Department of Defense Network of the Future. White Paper. 2011. https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/solutions/industries/docs/gov/white_paper_c11_686977.pdf Retrieved: May,2022.

U.S. Army Unified Capabilities Reference Architecture Version 1.0; October 2013

Department of Defense Unified Capabilities Requirements 2013 (UCR 2013) January 2013.

Department of Defense. Assured Services (AS) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) 2013 (AS-SIP 2013) January 2013

Department of Defense. Assured Services (AS) Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) 2013 (AS-SIP 2013) Errata-1, July 2013.

F. Baker, J. Polk (Cisco Systems), “Implementing an Emergency Telecommunications Service (ETS) for Real-Time Services in the Internet Protocol Suite”, RFC 4542, May 2006.

Department of Defense. Unified Capabilities Framework 2013. January 2013.

W.E. Burr. Security in ISDN. NIST Special Publication 500-189. September 1991

End of Support for Sectéra Wireline Terminal. May 17, 2019 https://www.redcom.com/sectera-wireline-terminal-eos/ Retrieved: May,2022.

The Defense Network of Tomorrow—Today. AT&T White paper. 2018.

AR 25–13. Information Management. Army Telecommunications and Unified Capabilities. Headquarters Department of the Army. Washington, DC. 11 May 2017

AR 25–1–1. Army Information Technology Implementation Instructions. Headquarters Department of the Army. Washington, DC. 15 July 2019

L. Bowman, R. Riehl, and S. Shah, “Defense Information System Network (DISN) asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) goal architecture and transition strategy,” in IEEE Military Communications Conference. Proceedings. MILCOM 98 (Cat. No.98CH36201), 19-21 Oct, 1998, Boston, USA. DOI: 10.1109/MILCOM.1998.722548.

“Doctrine for Command, Control, Communications, and Computer (C4) Systems Support to Joint Operations,” 30 May 1995. http://waffenexporte.de/NRANEU/others/jp_doctrine/jp6_0(95).pdf/ Retrieved: May,2022.

“DARPA names Lockheed Martin to build intelligent network,” March 24, 2005. http://www.militaryaerospace.com/articles/2005/03/darpanames-lockheed-martin-to-build-intelligent-network.html/ Retrieved: May,2022.

S. Pasricha, and N. Dutt, On-Chip Communication Architectures, Elsevier, 2008.

P.M. Fernandez, “Circuit switching in the internet,” Dissertation, Stanford University, June 2003.

Kuei-chung Chang, Jih-sheng Shen, and Tien-fu Chen, “Evaluation and design trade-offs between circuit-switched and packet-switched NoCs for application-specific SoCs,” Proc. Design Autom. Conf., San Francisco, 2006, pp. 143--148.

Shaoteng Liu et al, “Analysis and evaluation of circuit switched NoC and packet switched NoC” // Digital System Design (DSD), 2013 Euromicro Conference on, 4-6 Sept. 2013.

G. Chen et al, “A 340mV-to-0.9V 20.2Tb/s source-synchronous hybrid packet/circuit-switched 16@x16 network-on-chip in 22 nm tri-gate CMOS,” Proc. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), IEEE International, 2014, pp. 276--277.

A.E. Kiasari et al, Mathematical Formalisms for Performance Evaluation of Networks-on-Chip. 2013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2480741.2480755

D. Metz, “Joint Information Environment Single Security Architecture (JIE SSA),” DISA, 12 May, 2014. http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/dodi/80 1001p.pdf?ver=2018-09-10-082254-477/ Retrieved: May,2022.

“Cyber Situational Awareness - Big Data Solution.” https://docplayer.net/2357634-Cyber-situational-awareness-big data-solution.html/ Retrieved: May,2022.

S. Meloni, “The Future of the Joint Information Environment (JIE)”, Sept 24, 2014. http://blog.immixgroup.com/2014/09/24/the-futureof-the-joint information-environment-jie/ Retrieved: May,2022.

“JRSS Deployments.” https://c.ymcdn.com/sites/alamoace.site ym.com/resource/resmgr/2017_ace/2017_speakers/2017_AACE_Key note_Presentations/doc_keynote_Yee.pdf / Retrieved: May,2022.

DoD Instruction 8010.01. “Department of Defense Information Network (DODIN) Transport,” September 10, 2018. http://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/dodi/80 1001p.pdf?ver=2018-09-10-082254-477/ Retrieved: May,2022.

Sneps-Sneppe, Manfred, Vladimir Sukhomlin, and Dmitry Namiot. "On Enterprise Information Systems and Cyber Threats: Some Pentagon’s Shortcomings and Newer Initiatives." 2019 11th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT). IEEE, 2019.

“Cyberscoop.” https://www.cyberscoop.com/audit-warns-of-poor-planning-onvast-pentagon-it-plan/ Retrieved: May,2022.

GAO-16-593, “Joint Information Environment: DOD Needs to Strengthen Governance and Management,” Jul 14, 2016.

“Pentagon Tech Chief Says He'll 'Take the Hit' for GAO Criticism of JIE,” Nov 02, 2016. http://www.nextgov.com/cio-briefing/2016/11/pentagon-tech-chief-says-hell-take-hit-gao-criticism-jie/132882/ Retrieved: May,2022.

M. Gruss, “The debate about whether DISA's new security system is ready for primetime”, Febr 7, 2018, Web Link https://www.c4isrnet.com/show-reporter/afceawest/2018/02/08/the-debate-about-whether-disas-new-securitysystem-is-ready-for-primetime/ Retrieved: May,2022.

L.C. Williams, “DOD CIO: JRSS set for 2019 completion,” Mar 05, 2018. https://fcw.com/articles/2018/03/05/jrss completionmiller. aspx/ Retrieved: May,2022.

L. C. Williams, “Is it time to rethink JRSS?” Feb 01, 2019. https://defensesystems.com/articles/2019/02/01/jrss-pause-report williams.aspx/” Retrieved: May,2022.

J. Marks, “The Pentagon Has a Big Plan to Solve Identity Verification in Two Years,” in NEXTGOV, May 17, 2018. https://www.defenseone.com/technology/2018/05/pentagon-has-big-plan-solve-identity-verification-two-years/148280/ Retrieved: May,2022.

M. Pomerleau, “The Pentagon is moving away from the Joint Regional Security Stacks,” Nov 1, 2021. https://www.c4isrnet.com/it-networks/2021/11/01/the-pentagon-is-moving-away-from-the-joint-regional-security-stacks/ Retrieved: May,2022.

Executive Order on Improving the Nation’s Cybersecurity. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/presidential-actions/2021/05/12/executive-order-on-improving-the-nations-cybersecurity/ Retrieved: May,2022.

S. W. Rose et al, Zero Trust Architecture. Special Publication (NIST SP) - 800-207. August 10, 2020. https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.SP.800-207

Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonial_Pipeline_ransomware_attack/ Retrieved: May,2022.

G. Sawyer, and B. Emmett, “A Review of the Cybersecurity Programs in the United States Army,” Journal of Information and Technology, 2021, 5(1), 22 - 30. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.53819/81018102t2017

GAO-19-128, “Weapon Systems Cybersecurity. DOD Just Beginning to Grapple with Scale of Vulnerabilities,” Report to the Committee on Armed Services, U.S. Senate, US Government Accountability Office, October 2018.

D. Grazier. “What Should We Do About a Generation of Weapons Vulnerable to Cyberattacks? An Obvious Solution Being Ignored,” January 31, 2019. https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2019/01/what-should-we-do-about-a generation-of-weapons-vulnerable-to-cyberattacks/ Retrieved: May,2022.

M. Montgomery, and E. Borghard, “Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities to Conventional and Strategic Deterrence.” https://ndupress.ndu.edu/Portals/68/Documents/jfq/jfq-102/jfq-102_79-89_Features-Cyber_Threats.pdf/ Retrieved: May,2022.

RAND Corporation, Hackers Wanted: An Examination of the Cybersecurity Labor Market, (2014).

D. Grazier, “F-35: Still No Finish Line in Sight.” March 19, 2018. https://www.pogo.org/investigation/2018/03/f-35-still-no-finish-line-in-sight/ Retrieved: May,2022.

D. Grazier, “What Should We Do About a Generation of Weapons Vulnerable to Cyberattacks? An Obvious Solution Being Ignored,” January 31, 2019. https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2019/01/what-should-we-do-about-a-generation-of-weapons-vulnerable-to-cyberattacks/ Retrieved: May,2022.

F-35 program stagnated in 2021. https://www.pogo.org/analysis/2022/03/f-35-program-stagnated-in-2021-but-dod-testing-office-hiding-full-extent-of-problem/ Retrieved: May,2022.

Zumwalt-class destroyer - Wikipedia Retrieved: May,2022.

S. Gallagher, “The Navy’s newest warship is powered by Linux.” 10/18/2013. The Navy’s newest warship is powered by Linux | Ars Technica Retrieved: May,2022.

M. Thompson, “The U.S. Navy's Titanium “Tin Can””// Analysis. January 10, 2019.

J. Katz, and A. Eversden, “Navy’s problems with the Zumwalt may be hurting its hypersonic weapon efforts” // Breaking Defense. January 27, 2022

NASA X-43. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NASA_X-43/ Retrieved: May,2022.

Boeing X-51 Waverider - Wikipedia Retrieved: May,2022.

Analiz vneshnetorgovoj dejatel'nosti Rossii. http://kaivg.narod.ru/exp.pdf/ Retrieved: May, 2022.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Abava  Absolutech Convergent 2020

ISSN: 2307-8162