Mathematical Models of Cancer are More Reminiscent of Glasperlenspiel

Manfred Sneps-Sneppe


The article has two goals: firstly, to attract the interest of mathematicians to immunology and, secondly, to make some efforts (it must be admitted that quite limited) to promote the key achievements of Latvian virologists in the invention of cancer research, namely, the medicines Rigvir and Larifan for that going back in history to the 1960s. The immune system (innate and adaptive immunity) as well as lymphocyte sources are discussed, namely, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, cytokines, chemokines, and interferons. The dual role of macrophages and dendritic cells is studied in many mathematical models. Generally, cancers do not have danger signals and, therefore, cannot elicit strong immune reactions. Immunomodulators turn cancer from a cold to a hot state, to make cancer visible to the immune system. Immunomodulators Poly (I:C) and Larifan are compared. Oncolytic virus therapy is a novel approach in the field of cancer treatment. The first oncolytic virus in the world was the genetically unmodified ECHO-7 strain enterovirus Rigvir, which was approved in Latvia in 2004 for skin melanoma treatment, but withdrawn in 2019 because did not reach the current standards for clinical use within the EU area.

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